Rules for car trips.


In addition to the basic rules (which we will see later in this book), there are a series of measures that drivers, pedestrians and everyone in general should know to follow and disseminate.
 Before undertaking a medium or long distance trip:
-It is highly recommended to verify the conditions in which the vehicle is located and proceed to its setup.
-the driver or drivers should sleep and rest, and not drink alcohol or substances that produce sleep.
-good eating or easily digested foods.
During the trip:
-all those who travel in a car must use seat belts.
-It is essential to respect the maximum speed allowed. Many drivers are enthusiastic about the speed that cars are currently developing or think that on a motorway with little traffic accidents can not happen.
 However, a loose animal, a stopped vehicle, a slippery road are high risk factors because there is no time to enhance maneuvers or slow down.
It is preferable to travel by day; during the night, dawn or dusk, it is more difficult to distinguish the contours of objects and calculate distances.
 On every occasion:
-in cities, all drivers must be attentive to pedestrians and observe all traffic regulations.
-Before performing a maneuver, such as bending or parking, you must notify well in advance.
-the precautions should be increased when it rains, snows or there is ice.
-It is not convenient to listen to music with headphones.

Children in cars.
Children deserve special attention when traveling by car. There is a series of recommendations from the WHO (World Health Organization) that, when put into practice, would save painful consequences. To do this, divide groups of children by weight and age.
Baby up to 9 kg of weight. Until they are seated or weighing 7 to 8 kilos, they should go in a rigid carrycot, located crosswise on top of the back seat and fastened with the safety belts. If the baby can sit, a safety seat should be used conveniently attached to the seat. If the baby is in the front seat, the chair will be located in the opposite direction to the one of the march.
 Children from 9 to 18 kg of weight. The safety seat must be fixed in the rear seat.
 Children from 18 to 25 kg and 25 to 36 kg (from 4 to 10 years old). They should go on a cushion so that the safety belt is secured at the level of the pelvis. They can also be secured with a special harness. With a diagonal strip that holds them by the chest.
 Children over 10 years old. They use the normal safety belt.

There should not be any loose heavy objects inside the vehicle, as a sudden maneuver or braking can turn them into dangerous projectiles.

Bicycles, Motorcycles and Mopeds.
Circulating through these means in the city always involves risks, because if a person falls it can be run over by a transport vehicle. That is why extreme security measures have to be taken. For example.
 Look very well before going down a sidewalk to the street.
 Use wheels appropriate to the size and weight.
 Periodically check the state of the road, such as the air in the wheels, the brakes, front and rear lights, grease of the chains on the bicycle, etc.
 Carry bells or horns.
 Always wear light clothing (or reflectors for the night).
 Use the appropriate speed to the road through which you pass.
 Use helmet.
 Avoid roads with wet mud or wet roads.

Care to avoid accidents

Accidents are apparently fortuitous events, but all have causes and effects. Many can be avoided by adopting some attitudes of self-protection.

Prevention in sport:
Practicing sports, as we saw, allows us to develop our physical abilities and help mental health. But, frequently, a deficient training, the lack of a correct medical examination or the use of inadequate materials are the cause of unwanted accidents. The most frequent are those that occur due to hyperfunction or hyperloading of muscles, ligaments or joints. For example, lesions of the growth cartilages in children and adolescents, tendonitis in the soles of the feet, the heel, etc., fracture of fatigue at the level of the bones of the limbs, and many others.

Other accidents are related to bumps or bad movements, such as sprains, fractures, strains, contractures and dislocations. Some traumatic incidents have later, long-term consequences. On the other hand, there are sports in which important traumas can occur, such as boxing, rugby and football.

How to take care of ourselves?
To avoid disorders when we practice sports or any type of physical exercise, we should take into account some considerations.

 Before starting a sport it is necessary to warm up for 10 or 15 minutes. The heating should be longer in low temperatures.
It is not advisable to finish a physical activity abruptly¸ but you have to do it gradually so that the muscles cool down little by little. This prevents stiffness and sudden drop in blood pressure.
It is important to keep your back aligned.
 When jumping or running. It should fall with the front of the feet, instead of the heels.
 Stretching movements should be performed slowly to avoid shortening of the muscles and possible breakage.
 Always increase the physical effort gradually.
 Pain is a signal sent to us by the body: let’s pay attention to it.