Work accidents


Many times we hear or read in the press that a worker has fallen from a scaffold, that there has been a collapse of a wall on a construction site or that an explosion has occurred in a factory. These are accidents of great resonance in the media. But there are also accidents that will never reach the media, such as injuries, dislocations and fractures, to mention just a few disorders that can occur in the workplace.

The list of accidents and occupational diseases, of course, is much broader.

Improve security
The prevention of work accidents is directly related to the continuous improvement of safety in companies. This has several aspects.
 Storage of materials.
Suitable space for tasks.
Lighting.
 Clean the place.
 Permanent evaluation of the conditions and production elements to repair and replace what is not in good condition.
Security in the use and maintenance of equipment and tools.
 Due to training in the use of machine tools.
 Provision of security elements, such as a helmet, glasses and gloves, and appropriate clothing.
Instruction in the use of materials and signage of those that can be dangerous, such as chemical products, as well as danger zones.
 Care of the internal and external environment.
 Regular measurements of the level or concentration of polluting materials, such as noise, heat, smoke, gases, vapors, bacteria, chemical products.
 Regular medical recognition of the staff.
Training of first aid personnel.
 Emergency cover.
 First-aid kit complete and accessible to all staff.

Take care of the bites of snakes.


People who live in rugged areas, with little or no urbanization, such as those who are going to spend their holidays there, are exposed to bites of snakes if they do not take certain precautions. Which are?


 Know the kinds of snakes that inhabit the region.
 Learn to differentiate vipers from snakes.
 Check the surroundings of the house (or the store) and the places where they can hide, such as firewood and sheds.
 Weave the surroundings so that they are not filled with rodents, the preferred food of the ophidians.
 Use sticks with hooks if necessary to remove something from the holes in the trees, deep vessels or firewood.
 Avoid crossing areas of tall grass or bushes, especially those that do not have marked trails.
 In the case of doing so, wear high-heeled shoes and, before getting caught, review it.
When walking in uninhabited pairs, bring a dog (which can recognize these animals by smell), or a stick finished in a fork, which allows immobilize them.
 Use caution if you urinate or defecate on the floor.
 Do not take a snake with your hand, even if it seems dead.


 Know the kinds of snakes that inhabit the region.
 Learn to differentiate vipers from snakes.
 Check the surroundings of the house (or the store) and the places where they can hide, such as firewood and sheds.
 Weave the surroundings so that they are not filled with rodents, the preferred food of the ophidians.
 Use sticks with hooks if necessary to remove something from the holes in the trees, deep vessels or firewood.
 Avoid crossing areas of tall grass or bushes, especially those that do not have marked trails.
 In the case of doing so, wear high-heeled shoes and, before getting caught, review it.
When walking in uninhabited pairs, bring a dog (which can recognize these animals by smell), or a stick finished in a fork, which allows immobilize them.
 Use caution if you urinate or defecate on the floor.
 Do not take a snake with your hand, even if it seems dead.

The sun on the skin.


The Sun is a source of health. Thanks to him, we fix essential vitamins for the organism. But, when you sunbathe, we must protect ourselves in a way, since exposing several hours to their rays damages the skin, and can even suffer disorders later, such as the appearance of wrinkles, spots, aging of the skin, peeling and tumors cutaneous

Let’s look at the precautions we should take.


 The best times to sunbathe are the morning hours, before 11 o’clock, and in the afternoon, after 16 o’clock, when the radiation is less intense.
 Always use sunscreen, with the factor that corresponds to age, skin color or specific skin problems.
 Wear a hat to protect the head, neck and ears.
 Use a garment during the moments of greatest radiation.
 Do not perform physical exercises of great effort in the sun, because the loss of water and minerals can produce a serious disorder known as “heat stroke”.
 Do not sit still or sleep in the sun.
 Drink plenty of water or juices, so as not to become dehydrated.
 Dark glasses are advisable, but the glasses must be of good quality, because otherwise they can cause worse damages.
 Lose skin and head when hot.
 Avoid spending a lot of time under the reflections of sand, snow and water, which increase the power of radiation.
 When it is a long time since the last exposure to the sun, you should start with 15 minutes, and gradually increase.

Enjoy the water

Floating, swimming, splashing in the water is extremely rewarding. Water is also therapeutic. Many people, in summer, try to be near a swimming pool, a river or the wonderful sea. What are the precautions that we must observe to enjoy the water without problems?
 If we want to take baths in the sea, it is convenient to observe the flags with the color code, which indicates if the state is good, doubtful or dangerous.
It is preferable that the beach or the pool have lifeguards.
 If you do not know how to swim, do not get away from the coast. Nor be on tiptoe, as the waves can cover the person or it can move towards depression of the ground without realizing it.
 When it is decided to swim, it is best to do it in a group.
 If someone asks for help, you must cooperate so that a lifeguard intervenes or to procure a lifesaver.
Do not bathe in rivers or lakes without knowing their depth and currents.
 Children must be watched over by an adult.
 When a cramp occurs, it is best to float and try to relax, and notify the nearest person.
 Always wear a lifejacket when practicing water sports.

Be careful with fire!


If we are going to make fire in the place where we camp, it is necessary to follow a series of rules to avoid fires and burns.
 One of the recommendations of the camper associations is to make a well 30 cm deep to protect the wind flame.
 A place must be chosen at a certain distance from the tent, to prevent smoke and sparks from reaching it.
Apagar well fire is another obligation of the camper. If we dig a hole, as we indicated before. Once the fire has been extinguished, everything is put together in the center and, when that cold, the material that has remained is mixed with the ashes in sight. Then everything is covered with clean earth and herbs.

Go camping.


It is one of the most pleasant experiences to enjoy the outdoors and it is worth trying, even once in a lifetime. It is the best way to be in contact with nature and develop physical and mental skills that make the person’s well-being.

I blow you have to take into account a series of preventions so that nothing will mess up the stay.
 Gather information about the area, state of the roads, etc.
 The chosen place to camp should be at a safe distance from rivers, lakes and the seashore, due to possible floods and tides. Remember that the mountain rivers can become a torrent when it rains on the peaks. Also note that the trees surrounding the site are not very old or are sick.
 The land where the store is installed must be flat and without stones, which is a perfect rest. Always clean it beforehand, to remove lumps and annoying twigs. In rainy areas, a trench must be dug around the perimeter of the store.
 Install the tent according to the manufacturer’s instructions and fix it properly.
The fire should always be away from the store and trees.
 Wear the right clothes for the climate of the place and always some to change when the one you are not using gets wet.
Do not forget the first aid kit.
 The flashlight and batteries are fundamental elements of the camper.
 Do not drink well water, ditches or pond if unknown fruits or mushrooms.
 When camping with caravan or trailer, it is important that the gas facilities are in perfect condition.

Rules for car trips.


In addition to the basic rules (which we will see later in this book), there are a series of measures that drivers, pedestrians and everyone in general should know to follow and disseminate.
 Before undertaking a medium or long distance trip:
-It is highly recommended to verify the conditions in which the vehicle is located and proceed to its setup.
-the driver or drivers should sleep and rest, and not drink alcohol or substances that produce sleep.
-good eating or easily digested foods.
During the trip:
-all those who travel in a car must use seat belts.
-It is essential to respect the maximum speed allowed. Many drivers are enthusiastic about the speed that cars are currently developing or think that on a motorway with little traffic accidents can not happen.
 However, a loose animal, a stopped vehicle, a slippery road are high risk factors because there is no time to enhance maneuvers or slow down.
It is preferable to travel by day; during the night, dawn or dusk, it is more difficult to distinguish the contours of objects and calculate distances.
 On every occasion:
-in cities, all drivers must be attentive to pedestrians and observe all traffic regulations.
-Before performing a maneuver, such as bending or parking, you must notify well in advance.
-the precautions should be increased when it rains, snows or there is ice.
-It is not convenient to listen to music with headphones.

Children in cars.
Children deserve special attention when traveling by car. There is a series of recommendations from the WHO (World Health Organization) that, when put into practice, would save painful consequences. To do this, divide groups of children by weight and age.
Baby up to 9 kg of weight. Until they are seated or weighing 7 to 8 kilos, they should go in a rigid carrycot, located crosswise on top of the back seat and fastened with the safety belts. If the baby can sit, a safety seat should be used conveniently attached to the seat. If the baby is in the front seat, the chair will be located in the opposite direction to the one of the march.
 Children from 9 to 18 kg of weight. The safety seat must be fixed in the rear seat.
 Children from 18 to 25 kg and 25 to 36 kg (from 4 to 10 years old). They should go on a cushion so that the safety belt is secured at the level of the pelvis. They can also be secured with a special harness. With a diagonal strip that holds them by the chest.
 Children over 10 years old. They use the normal safety belt.

There should not be any loose heavy objects inside the vehicle, as a sudden maneuver or braking can turn them into dangerous projectiles.

Bicycles, Motorcycles and Mopeds.
Circulating through these means in the city always involves risks, because if a person falls it can be run over by a transport vehicle. That is why extreme security measures have to be taken. For example.
 Look very well before going down a sidewalk to the street.
 Use wheels appropriate to the size and weight.
 Periodically check the state of the road, such as the air in the wheels, the brakes, front and rear lights, grease of the chains on the bicycle, etc.
 Carry bells or horns.
 Always wear light clothing (or reflectors for the night).
 Use the appropriate speed to the road through which you pass.
 Use helmet.
 Avoid roads with wet mud or wet roads.

Attention to environmental conditions.


Accidents do not always depend on our physical fitness. Sometimes, environmental conditions also influence.
These are some of the cares to take in various situations.

When we practice a sport on a court, we must avoid playing on wet or slippery surfaces; the surface must be flat.
 Around the pools you should walk instead of running, since the floor is always wet. Many people slip and, when falling, traumatisms occur in different parts of the body.
 If we are going to throw ourselves in the water in an unknown place, we must first find out the depth.
 When running or running, several precautions should be taken:
-be aware of the terrain, since a well or unevenness can cause a twist.
-with respect to the roads, it is not convenient to choose narrow roads or highways, or unknown paths.
-transit in the opposite direction to the traffic routes, and pay attention to the maneuvers that can make the drivers of vehicles.
-Obey traffic signs.
-use bright clothes.
-Go as a group, otherwise, anticipate the need to make a phone call.
 If cycling is done:
-respect always the traffic signals.
-Do not go in the opposite direction.
-use helmet and bright clothes.
-circulate preferably in the areas reserved for cyclists.
-do not zigzag.
Traffic accidents.
In many countries, the main cause of death and disability are accidents involving vehicles. Why do traffic accidents occur? The causes are many and varied:
 Vehicle malfunction.
 The driver’s lack of skill.
 Maneuvers made to avoid ramming an animal or a person.
 Driving under the influence of alcohol or licit drugs (medicines that produce sleep) or illicit drugs.
 Do not respect the signs or speed limits.
Do not use a seatbelt.
 Going long distances without resting.

In any case, if the people driving a vehicle are responsible, the possibility of accidents decreases.

Care to avoid accidents

Accidents are apparently fortuitous events, but all have causes and effects. Many can be avoided by adopting some attitudes of self-protection.

Prevention in sport:
Practicing sports, as we saw, allows us to develop our physical abilities and help mental health. But, frequently, a deficient training, the lack of a correct medical examination or the use of inadequate materials are the cause of unwanted accidents. The most frequent are those that occur due to hyperfunction or hyperloading of muscles, ligaments or joints. For example, lesions of the growth cartilages in children and adolescents, tendonitis in the soles of the feet, the heel, etc., fracture of fatigue at the level of the bones of the limbs, and many others.

Other accidents are related to bumps or bad movements, such as sprains, fractures, strains, contractures and dislocations. Some traumatic incidents have later, long-term consequences. On the other hand, there are sports in which important traumas can occur, such as boxing, rugby and football.

How to take care of ourselves?
To avoid disorders when we practice sports or any type of physical exercise, we should take into account some considerations.

 Before starting a sport it is necessary to warm up for 10 or 15 minutes. The heating should be longer in low temperatures.
It is not advisable to finish a physical activity abruptly¸ but you have to do it gradually so that the muscles cool down little by little. This prevents stiffness and sudden drop in blood pressure.
It is important to keep your back aligned.
 When jumping or running. It should fall with the front of the feet, instead of the heels.
 Stretching movements should be performed slowly to avoid shortening of the muscles and possible breakage.
 Always increase the physical effort gradually.
 Pain is a signal sent to us by the body: let’s pay attention to it.

Helpful Tips:


In addition to choosing our food, there are certain hygienic measures that make the health of the digestive system.

 When we chew, we should not rush, but crush the food well with our teeth. By increasing the surface of the food, the action of digestive enzymes is accelerated.
 While we are eating, do not rush or get angry or argue. Eating without haste and without worries guarantees a good digestion.
 We must consume the food in maximum cleaning conditions. The meats should be well cooked, fruits and vegetables well washed, the food should be fresh and without contamination.
 Set fixed hours for meals and never stay on your stomach for a long time. In this way, the body regulates the secretion of gastric juices and ulcers are avoided.
It is advisable to consume the food at a normal temperature, neither too cold nor too hot.
We should avoid foods with artificial colors.
 Use salt and sugar sparingly. Some diseases, such as hypertension diabetes¸ are accentuated with its abuse.
 Do not perform strong physical exercises after eating.

A balanced diet.
It is one that combines in the necessary proportions proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Protein-rich foods include red and white meats, milk, fish, eggs, cheese and legumes.

Foods rich in carbohydrates or carbohydrates are cereals, flours, bread, vegetables and fruits.

The rock foods in liquids or fats are oil (vegetable and animal), butter and cream.

In a 3,000-calorie diet, you should consume 375 g of carbohydrates, 112 g of protein and 116 g of fat.

Vitamins and their benefits
Where they are and what effects it causes.
Vitamin A: in cod, lamb and cow liver, whole milk, butter, fatty cheeses, egg yolks, carrots, mango, medlar and melon. It benefits vision, skin and mucous membranes.
 Vitamin B2: in veal liver, lamb, pork, etc .; milk, cheese, eggs, soybeans, turnips, spinach, parsley, almonds, hazelnuts, cocoa. Its lack causes lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, which are manifested by inflammation of the pharynx, lips and tongue, seborrheic dermatitis on the skin. Its pronounced shortage causes anemia and can cause cataracts.
 Vitamin B6: in meat, liver, cereals, corn, soy. Its scarcity causes skin lesions, corners, inflammation of the tongue and, in very rare cases, seizures in nursing infants.
 Vitamin B12: in meats, milk, eggs, liver. Its shortage causes anemia and disorders of the nervous system, from memory loss to disorders of the sense of touch. It is necessary for the multiplication of the cells. Its lack prevents the production of red blood cells.
 Vitamin C: in citrus fruits and potatoes. Its lack provokes hemorrhages, difficulty in the healing of the wounds of the skin, fall of the teeth, inflammation and bleeding in the gums and Amenia. It favors the absorption of iron.
Vitamin D: the main source of natural energy are ultraviolet rays. It facilitates the intestinal absorption of calcium.
 Vitamin E: in oils obtained from wheat seeds, in vegetables, legumes and women’s milk. Eliminates toxins and facilitates the integrity of the membrane of red blood cells.
• Folic acid: in vegetables with green leaves, some fruits and the liver. Intense cooking can destroy a large amount of folic acid contained in food. It is necessary for cell multiplication. To act, it is supplemented with vitamin B12.
Niacina: in meats, fish, whole-grain breads and peanuts. Its lack causes the disease of pellagra, whose manifestations are dementia, dermatitis and diarrhea.